Christos C. Zouboulis, Eugenia Makrantonaki
The incidence of age-associated skin diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide mainly due to early or lifelong overexposure to ultraviolet light and to an increasing aged population. In order to transform this demographic change into a better understanding of the pathomechanisms of these diseases, an early diagnosis and therapy are essential steps. In addition, a joint effort to raise public awareness, ...
Male skin care in the U.S. market
Zoe Diana Draelos
Male skin care is an interesting market because most male directed products are currently purchased by females. This is in contrast to the female skin care market where most women select products for their own use. This means that male skin care products must be effective and appropriately designed for male skin, but appeal to the female purchaser with marketing, packaging, and aesthetics.
Trends in home care devices
Alongside skincare, at-home beauty devices are evolving as a significant product category driven by new technologies and product launches. The most popular home care devices are designed for hair removal, cleansing, acne and anti-ageing.
Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on our sun exposure
In this article, the author discusses the trends in atmospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation, gives risk estimates of human skin cancer associated with ozone depletion and investigates the relationship between climate change, UV exposure and skin cancer.
A histological study highlighting new targets for stretch mark ...
Christine Jeanmaire, Louis Danoux, Olga Freis et al.
Striae distensae, or stretch marks, are linear scars in the dermis which arise from rapid stretching of the skin over weakened connective tissue. In order to best characterize stretch marks, we first performed a histological study comparing abdominal skin exhibiting a mature stretch mark and the adjacent normal skin obtained from female donors. Based on the results of this study we propose a solution ...
New concepts in acne pathogenesis
Christos C. Zouboulis
Acne is the most common skin disease worldwide. Choosing the therapeutic regimens for the clinically diversified disease phenotypes requires good knowledge of its pathophysiology. New concepts in this field have been developed in the last 15 years. Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder in which androgens, PPAR ligands, regulatory neuropeptides and environmental factors are probably involved. These ...
Solubility of UV absorbers for sunscreens is essential for the ...
Bernd Herzog, Jochen Giesinger, Marcel Schnyder et al.
In this article, the authors compare different methods for the determination of solubility. Some examples of solubility data for solid UV absorbers are presented and a concept using this knowledge to create light feel formulations is introduced.
The impact of cleansing products on the skin surface pH
Sven Munke, Uwe Aßmus, Bernhard Banowski et al.
The authors discuss a project that was conducted to evaluate the effect of application of surfactant systems of different pH on the skin surface pH. In addition to a literature search a controlled and randomized multicenter study was performed.
BB, CC, DD: consumers go crazy for Alphabet Creams
Just about every major skincare brand now has their own version of a BB cream, offering multiple benefits in one formulation. The craze for BB creams is less than two years old, at least in western markets, and already the next generation CC creams are launching thick and fast. However, it is worth pointing out that the first BB cream was developed 50 years ago by renowned dermatologist Christine ...
Impure skin and acne: is mature skin affected or not?
Torsten Clarius, Nabil Abdul-Malak, Isabelle Bonnet et al.
Acne can occur in almost all age groups. Acne tarda represents a very special area in cosmetics and may present a large psychological burden for those afflicted with it. The author discusses the causes for impure skin and acne, the role of sebum and hormones, and identifies active ingredients which help fight impure skin. He also describes various studies which were conducted to find suitable approaches ...
The evolution of UVA protection
Uli Osterwalder, Samantha Champ, Heike Flösser-Müller et al.
Over the last two decades, enormous progress has been made with regard to UVA protection. Modern photostable UVAI and broad-spectrum UV filters are now available almost globally, and the various UVA assessment methods are about to be harmonized. However, sunscreens still require further improvement of UVAI protection and a few issues in the measurement methods still remain to be solved.
Substances can penetrate into the skin along three different pathways.The Skin Care Forum illustrates the uptake of substances through the skin in a schematic diagram shown here.
Internet-based lay person rating of facial photographs to assess ...
This study investigates the effects of a cleanser and a foundation on the attractiveness of female faces. A set of facial photographs was viewed and then rated by a group of lay persons. It was shown that a treatment with foundations significantly increased the attractiveness of female faces.
Analysis of the penetration of topically applied substances ...
Jürgen Lademann, Alexa Patzelt
In cosmetics and in dermatology, the topical application of substances to the skin is the form of choice. This article describes three main penetration pathways for topically applied drugs through the skin barrier and introduces various methods of investigations.
Cutaneous mechanisms in pruritus induction
This article describes and defines the various forms of pruritus (itch) and explains their pathophysiology. It also deals with the inflammatory mediators involved here. Furthermore, it focuses on the role of dry skin in the context of pruritus.
Developing personal care wipes products to meet tomorrow’s needs
Colleen M. Rocafort
In North America, the growth in the wipes market will be attributed to diversification and segmentation. In an effort to help formulators “do it their way” as they develop new personal care wipes products to meet consumers’ needs for the future, BASF has developed a Personal Care Technology Matrix as an effective tool to help formulators choose the appropriate technologies for specific claims and ...
Sensitive skin may be defined as the occurrence of erythema and/or abnormal stinging, burning, and tingling sensations (and sometimes as pain or pruritus) in response to multiple factors that may be physical (UV, heat, cold, wind), chemical (cosmetics, soaps, water, pollutants) and sometimes psychological (stress) or hormonal (menstrual cycle). The diagnostic, pathophysiology, epidemiology and treatment ...
The human skin barrier is organized as stacked bilayers of fully ...
A novel experimental approach showed that lipids are arranged as stacked bilayers of fully extended ceramides with cholesterol molecules associated with the ceramide sphingoid moiety.
SkinExplorer™: A new high-tech platform to interact inside ...
Marie-Danielle Vazquez-Duchêne, Gilles Pauly, Olga Freis et al.
This article introduces a new high-tech platform which has three facets: reconstruction of 3D virtual models at the microscopic level from serial histological sections, interaction between the user and an immersive 3D environment and finally, the feeling of “presence” inside the skin models.
Three-dimensional comet assay evaluation of human keratinocytes ...
The so-called “comet assay”, also called single cell gel electrophoresis, is known as one of the most sensitive assays for evaluating DNA strand breaks. The principle of the comet assay includes the DNA unwinding and staining by a fluorescent probe. In course of an electrophoresis, charged DNA fragments are pulled from the nucleus (or head of the comet) towards the anode, resembling a comet with a ...
Which role do nutricosmetics play in cosmetics?
This article discusses studies of nutritional supplements (nutricosmetics). It was shown that temporary supplementations of carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lypcopene and lutein, when consumed as nutritional supplements, either in capsule form or as a drink, achieve a systemic light protection and prevent skin aging.
Sensible solutions for sensitive faces
Annette Mehling, Ute Griesbach
Sensitive skin is accepted as a dermatological problem of physiological origin. This article features various aspects of sensitive skin and provides formulations which help manufacturers to develop tailored face care products.
Hybrid beauty - the blurring of boundaries between make up and ...
As trend watcher, the author tracks the development of various skin care categories and describes how claims about skin care, color cosmetics, make up and BB creams have a tendency to mix. Various examples are described, and an outlook for the future is given.
In silico determination of topical sun protection
Bernd Herzog, Uli Osterwalder
Computational simulations provide a convenient approach for estimating the UV screening performance of sunscreens. This paper discusses models for the calculation of the in silico sun protection factor (SPF). These are useful for designing sunscreen formulations and help to improve the understanding of sunscreen performance in general.
Storm over Silicones - Some cosmetic ingredient makers defend ...
Marc S. Reisch
This article discusses the current development in the field of silicones in the personal care industry, describes the controversial discussion about their potentially problematic consequences for the environment and focuses on the various positions of producers, competitors and regulators. In addition, the various approaches of the cosmetic producers to offer alternatives to silicones are described. ...
Anti-aging - where do we stand? Theories and hypotheses on skin ...
Petra Huber, Karin Hess
This paper presents current theories concerning skin aging processes. To date, more than 300 molecular biological mechanisms have been described in an effort to explain human aging. Some of these mechanisms affect not only evidence-based and individual treatment approaches in anti-aging medicine, but also concepts in the field of cosmetics. The most discussed and scientifically established theories ...
BB cream - The Korean beauty trend
Yeah-Young Baek, Sanguk Choi
Blemish balm (BB) is a tinted moisturizer that provides light coverage while caring for your skin. The new issue of Skin Care Forum offers an article on BB cream, the iconic cosmetic product in Korea. Next to focussing on its concept, the article discusses its significance for the Korean lifestyle and culture, also describing its German origins. The markets are treated and formulation examples as ...
Cosmetotextiles - Skin care you can wear
Annette Mehling, Raymond Mathis
Cosmetotextiles are textiles with cosmetic properties, but they can also be a vehicle for other active substances or functions. This article discusses microencapsulation as a key technology for cosmetotextiles, and treats the regulatory framework which in the past was based on various approaches. With regard to the cosmetic efficacy of cosmetotextiles, the safety of ingredients, quantity of the product ...
Skinasensyl® - A new peptidic active ingredient to reduce discomfort ...
Gilles Pauly, Olga Freis, Andreas Rathjens et al.
Skinasensyl® is new synthetic tetrapeptide which helps relieve sensitive skin by normalizing the tolerance threshold for environmental factors, certain topically applied uncomfortable products or skin care treatments. It mimicks a natural opioid peptide and was developed with the aim to decrease the stimulation of the skin’s nerve endings.
Wet dryer sheets: For textiles that look and feel good
The article treats a new concept for the effective transfer of substances to fabrics. The special technology of "Wet dryer sheets" makes clothes pleasant to wear, protects them from wear and tear, improves color maintenance and increases moisture uptake. They may contain skin care ingredients that provide protection for sensitive skin, thus enabling manufacturers to meet specific consumer needs.
Questions about Skin Care — Frequently asked consumers’ questions
In this article, frequently occurring questions about skin care are summarized. The need and interest of consumers to obtain in-depth information about skin care seems to be unlimited. In spite of the multitude of magazines featuring cosmetic articles and special reports in newspapers, on the radio and TV, plus the great variety of sources to be found on the Internet there is still an astonishingly ...
Perception, measurement and visualization of cosmetic effects
Torsten Clarius, Gilles Pauly, Olga Freis et al.
Modern visualization techniques not only help improve quantitative evaluations of test results but also lead to presentations which are more convincing for the consumer. Three-dimensional animations of detailed dermal structures of individual cells are suited to present scientific topics in an easy way and may contribute to the cosmetic manufacturer's credibility.
Eco-friendly cosmetic delivery systems based on natural biopolymers
Dr. Juan-Antonio Asensio, Salvatore Gargano, Yolanda Gómez et al.
This article introduces delivery systems for the cosmetic industry which are mainly based on biopolymers or biomolecules (such as chitosan, agar, alginate, or lecithin), or polymers obtained totally or partially from natural sources. A wide range of active ingredients such as vitamins, biocides, or oils can be encapsultate in these systems.
Looking for 'green' alternatives in skin cleansing? New concepts ...
Iris Hütter, Jessica Erasmy, Norbert Boyxen et al.
Plantapon® SF was developed to offer a ready-to-use surfactant system which meets the market demands for "green" and mildly cleasing surfactants for application in skin cleansing products. Plantapon® SF is free of alkyl sulfate, alkylether sulfate, ethylene oxide, betaine and preservatives (ECOCERT approved) and will thus contribute to successfully formulating "green" skin cleansing concepts.
New marketing concepts through the use of biomimetic active ...
Torsten Clarius, Gilles Pauly, Olga Freis et al.
Biomimetic approaches are a basis for the development of active ingredients and for the use in the advertising of final cosmetic products. "Learning from nature" may be the starting-point for cosmetic claims and slogans. The so-called lotus effect -- surface structures like on the upper side of lotus flower leaves, prevent germs and dirt particles from adhering to the leaves of this flower -- is a ...
From a cucumber mask to a sorbet
For many years, the cosmetics industry has been inspired by food. Cocoa beans and palm nuts, for instance, as natural ingredients, are important for suppliers of surfactants, emulsifiers and emollients. Basic foodstuffs such as cereals, milk, bread, honey, coffee, tea, fruit, rice, potatoes, avocados, olives, nuts, yeast, green tea or red wine all contain valuable substances for skin and hair care ...
Lamesoft Care – High performance micronized lipids for truly ...
Ulrich Issberner, Hans-Martin Haake, Sybille Cornelsen et al.
Lamesoft Care (INCI: PEG-4 Distearyl Ether (and) Sodium Laureth Sulfate (and) Distearyl Ether (and) Dicaprylyl Ether) is a wax dispersion, with a unique, new chemistry for hair and body. It is based on micronized ether-structures including selected performance waxes and emollients. It is a free-flowing, medium viscous, pumpable wax dispersion. Following the trend towards more white but elegant, luxury-pearl ...
Traceability of botanicals in personal care formulations
This articles describes the use of high quality botanical extracts in personal and home care formulations allows their traceability in final formulations like the presented case with Herbalia® Camomile. The high and constant content of active ingredients in "standardized extracts" and the development of specific analytical methods for the determination of the actives/markers like in the pharmaceutical ...
A new concept for effective color cosmetics using the Active ...
Pierre de Pouilly, Isabelle Benoit, Jean-Luc Contet-Audonneau et al.
This innovative technology of Active Powders opens a new dimension in anhydrous make-up formulations. It allows the incorporation of a significant amount of water phase containing hydrophilic active ingredients in a powder.
Diversification in the skin care market
The major marketing characteristic of the skin care market in the 21st century is diversification and specification. Instead of just one cream or lotion, consumers need an arsenal of products each targeting a specific problem/area of the body and face. This article discusses the origin of this development and the impact it has on the market.
New publication on skin protection
This book review on the topic of skin protection (original title in German:
Alles über Hautschutz, Hautreinigung, Hautpflege: Einsatz, Produktübersicht, Bezugsquellen
Authored by W. Dicke, I. Funk-Stendel, B. Marschner, F. Zuther ) is concerned with the protection, cleansing and care of the skin and gives detailed descriptions of the biological, legal and technological aspects, specifies the application ...
Resurrection plants: From a natural system to survive in the ...
Magali Ebersveiller, Gilles Pauly, Olga Freis et al.
PA Reviviscence® LS 9562 is an extract from the plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia, rich in anti-oxidants, associated with oligosaccharides derived from the xyloglycans from Tamarindus indica, immunostimulating and moisturizing, and trehalose, osmoregulating and also moisturizing. This association recreates the survival fraction responsible of the marvelous resistance of the resurrection plants. It has ...
Chronobiology and rhythms of the skin
Many skin functions exhibit chronobiological patterns and in particular circadian rhythmicity has been studied to a greater extent. Skin seems to be more reactive towards late afternoon and evening than mornings and early afternoon. This article will give a short overview on chronobiology and examples of chronobiological effects on skin will be described.
Russia’s cosmetics market growth is driven by women’s optimism ...
The author takes a look at the Russian market for upscale cosmetics and other personal care products, which is developing at a rapid pace.
Oligopeptides from Hibiscus esculentus seeds to smooth expression ...
Isabelle Benoit, Gilles Pauly, Louis Danoux et al.
Myoxinol® LS 9736 is a patented active ingredient by Laboratoires Sérobiologiques. It is a natural alternative botulic toxin for topical application and has anti-aging activity.
Dermatologists lend credibility to skincare
The numbers of dermatological brands are increasing year by year. Some of these niche brands catch the attention of major cosmetic producers and are ripe for acquisition.
Medical acne therapy and additional use of skin care products
In a multicenter study which was carried out in Germany, Austria, Belgium and Thailand, the effectiveness and skin compatibility of a medicinal facial skin care series for impure, acne-prone skin was investigated. A comedolytic treatment of the skin is recommended for patients suffering from acne. Mildly effective, non-comedogenic skin care products with an excellent skin compatibility in addition ...
Skin care in acne
About eighty percent of the adolescents suffer from acne during puberty. Although it is no serious health hazard, except in some rare severe forms, acne impairs the attractiveness and therefore has negative effects on the self-confidence. Boys are more and longer affected by acne than girls.
Impure skin: Natural actives in the treatment of acne-prone ...
Annette Mehling, Sybille Buchwald-Werner
Supportive therapies or over-the-counter products for the treatment of acne should really work. Plants are valuable sources for biologically active substances. The compliance is often higher when plant based therapeutics are used, as the consumer perceives them as being natural and therefore healthier. A basic skin care system for impure skin should consist of a mild cleansing formulation and a gentle ...
Treating skin from the inside out
Science and skincare are drawing closer together as the cosmetic houses explore new possibilities within the area of cosmeceuticals. Now a new beauty category is starting to emerge in the form of nutraceuticals which are products to be taken internally in order to obtain an external skincare benefit.
Strategies for Skin Penetration Enhancement
The skin has an extremely good barrier function and to improve the penetration of active ingredients. Often it is necessary to employ enhancement strategies. The understanding of the barrier architecture and the mechanisms of penetration has improved and many of the different determinants are understood. This knowledge enables to develop both passive (chemical) and active (physical) approaches to ...
Beauty from within
Beauty from within, nutricosmetics, or beauty supplements stand for innovative, holistic skin nutrition concepts which are applied to dietary supplements as well as to functional food products. This article takes a look at the elements which are needed to make skin care products, especially body shaping products, a success.
What is the most suitable strategy for stress proteins in cosmetics?
Christine Jeanmaire, Gilles Pauly, Philippe Moser et al.
Under various stress conditions, heat shock protein expression is enhanced in cells. Working on skin pieces, two of the major skin-expressed heat shock proteins, HSP72 and HSP27, were visualized by immunohistochemistry after several stress conditions (UV light, pollutants, thermal shocks) and heat shock expression quantified in the epidermis. A strong increase of the epidermal heat shock expression ...
Wellness and cosmetics: products to make you look and feel good
A steady stream of new product launches into the area of wellness and wellbeing looks set to continue as consumers look for an easy personal care in a stressful lifestyle. New technologies in skin care utilize plant ingredients to create products which not only have excellent performance benefits but also have a positive effect on the mood of the user.
In situ particle sizing of concentrated dispersions
A key issue in characterizing disperse systems is the knowledge of particle size. The most straightforward approach is to measure particle size in line using an in situ method, i.e. a technique allowing size measurements on concentrated samples. The in situ particle sizing analysis was further developed by Rolf Daniels and was named 3D ORM Technology (Optical Reflectance Measurement).
Dermocosmetics: Cosmetics and skin care from dermatological ...
Dermocosmetics containing active substances against skin ageing are becoming increasingly significant. Since cosmetics - in contrast to drugs - do not have to be authorized before they are launched to the market, a high degree of effectiveness and tolerability should be a primary objective.
Test strategies for products for dry skin
Dry skin often poses a problem in dermatology. Different skin diseases are based on a genetic disposition for dry skin. Subject panels and test designs suitable for dry skin products have to take into account endogenous and exogenous factors.
The latest anti-oxidant and enzyme research in skincare
Cosmetic chemists are constantly on the scent for new and exciting ingredients since they have discovered that antioxidants may delay and possibly reverse sings of aging. Natural ingredient stories must be backed up with solid scientific evidence. As another area of research which is applied in skin care formulations, enzyme technology is more problematic as enzymes are relatively unstable in cosmetic ...
Dermopharmacy Innovation Prize (DIP) for repair enzyme: Fast ...
Jean Krutmann, M.D., Professor of Environmental Health Research and Dermatology, at the Environmental Health Research Institute at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany, was awarded the Dermopharmacy Innovation Prize for his extensive research work into the area of photobiology of the skin. He has observed that human cells which have been damaged by UV light regenerate in a short time by ...
The wellbeing trend in skin and hair care
Innovative skin care product concepts based on well-being are offered by the cosmetics industry to provide the consumer with little respite from stress. Manufacturers have recognized the various possibilities to add sensory ingredients into skin care products which treat the skin and calm or energize the spirit.
Analysis of the stratum corneum by attenuated total reflection ...
H. Michael Heise, Wolfgang Pittermann
Infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy is an established method for stratum corneum analysis. The potential for dermatological studies is increased by the development of a flexible fibre-optic probe made from infrared-transparent polycrystalline silber halide material. The isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS-model) is a substitute for human in-vivo tests. The chemistry of human ...
Better skin protection with new barrier creams
Bernard Gabard, Sybille Schliemann-Willers
From a judicial point of view, skin protection creams are considered as cosmetics. As they are often applied on lesioned skin, they have to be safe and effective. This justifies that they are conceived and developed in a similar way as drugs. An animal model was designed for the screening of several formulations. For a broad screening of newly developed skin protection creams, a chronic irritation ...
A new method for contactless in vivo quantitative measurement ...
Véronique Gillon, Gilles Pauly, G. Perie et al.
Skin optical properties play an important role in both cosmetology and dermatology to enhance or modulate the skin's appearance. Gloss measurement is a standardized procedure in the cosmetic industry. Laboratoires Sérobiologiques has developed a new device for studying the skin reflection in vivo. The effects of a treatment with a pearlescent cosmetic cream containing Vegeseryl HGP LS 8527B® on the ...
Growing sophistication within bodycare
Bodycare has long been regarded as the poor relation of facial skin care. For years, bodycare has consisted of cheap, basic lotions or creams, which are effective moisturizers, but make no further claims. The market is changing and bodycare is catching up with facial skincare in terms of advanced formulations and ingredient breakthroughs.
Care effects for skin and hair resulting from glyceride esters
Esters are versatile substances which accompany us in a variety of areas in everyday life. They are involved in forming fragrances and flavors in wines and whiskey for example. If they are incorporated as ingredients in cosmetic substances, additional effects may be achieved in skin and hair care formulations. In the following article, the author describes concepts for cosmetic applications in which ...
Developments in anti-aging skincare
The focus on anti-aging skincare has been intensifying over the past decade. Competition between the major brands, new technologies, new ingredients and a worldwide growth in "baby boomers", those consumers born after World War Two, have all contributed to developments within this category.
Psycho-physiological aspects of foam
Wolf Eisfeld, Peter Busch, Wolfram Boucsein et al.
Foams play an important role for the consumer's experience of cosmetic products. In the investigations described here, a series of foams was subjected to an objective emotional assessment (OEA). A fifth foam (laurylether sulfate) was used as standard reference. As a further aspect in these psycho-physiology tests, the different subjective ratings of like and refusal were listed in an adjective check ...
Taking a look into skin
The technique of SSB (skin surface biopsies) allows a detailed examination of the stratum corneum as it exists in vivo. Its ability to allow both detailed microscopic inspection and analysis of its contents is unique and permits many diagnostic and research applications.
New cosmetic raw materials from fats and oils
Anionic surfactants such as cocomonoglyceride sulfate and protein fatty acid condensates and nonionic sugar surfactants such as alkyl polyglycosides from glucose and fatty alcohol are products which are both environmental and consumer-friendly. They are used in washing and cleansing agents, and as mild surfactants in cosmetic formulations.
Galenic principles of modern skin care products
This paper focuses on galenically interesting formulation concepts used in efficient, skin compatible and aesthetically appealing skin care products.
Baby skin care
In order to make it easier for experts to give competent advice on baby care products, manufacturers could provide physicians and pharmacists with detailed information about their products - surpassing the simple stating of ingredients as demanded by law. Relevant information is summarized in a guideline issued by the Society for Dermopharmacy.
A histological study of human wrinkle structures: Comparison ...
Jean-Luc Contet-Audonneau, Gilles Pauly, Christine Jeanmaire et al.
Wrinkles are a major topic in dermocosmetology. The purpose of this work has been to go deeper into the knowledge of cutaneous damage underlying these modifications of skin surface. In this investigation, skin biopsies of wrinkles and sun-protected areas subjects of both sexes were studied. Different histological techniques involving histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and quantification ...
Trends in cosmetic care products
The author reports on trends in the cosmetics industry: Oleochemical-based surfactants, wellness, an increasing awareness with regard to health and body as well as UV protection - these are only some of the keywords of this article.
Ultraviolet irradiation: Why full spectrum protection is needed
The studies described here show that the SPF is not an indicator for the protection for other end points. The same observation has also been made with the photo immunosuppression where UVA plays a major role. As a consequence, the authors conclude that a sunscreen formulation must be proportionally protective against UVA radiation. Thus, a “full spectrum” sunscreen product offers a better reduction ...
Skin protection in the workplace
The importance of occupational skin protection, a general description of skin protection measures and measures for skin protection by means of mild skin care products are the topics of this article.
FOITS: Fast Optical in Vivo Topometry of human skin
The Fast Optical in vivo Topometry of Human Skin (FOITS) technique is a method which provides a completely new approach to measure the skin surface. With this touch-free technique three-dimensional information may be gathered from the skin surface in an extremely short time (approximately 260 ms). Thus, it is no longer necessary to carry out time-consuming analyses and replicas.
Urea - its role in cosmetics
Urea has a growing importance in dermatological therapy and cosmetics. Diseases such as atopic dermatitis or clinical dry skin are marked by a deficiency of urea. Urea is of significance for the hydration of the stratum corneum. Normal skin contains approximately one percent urea. Furthermore, urea has keratolytic and pruritus-easing properties and may be incorporated as an active ingredient in moisturizers ...
Spectroscopy of the udder model after application of carotinoids
The “isolated perfused bovine udder” is an in vitro model which is widely used in dermatological and cosmetic research for absorption and irritation studies after topical application.
Synergistic Sun System — An innovative concept to formulate ...
The concept "Synergistic Sun System” stands for new emulsification technologies, innovative emulsifiers and emollients, as well as active ingredients with polyfunctional and synergistic performance characteristics. A profound knowledge of the spreading behavior of the emollients used is required to formulate elegant cosmetic sun care products with balanced sensorics and they may be formulated with ...